Efficiency: Efficiency is one of the key themes of environmental policy and policy analysis. Effective strategies are those where negative external effects and suboptimal outcomes are limited (Shepsle, 2010). An effective policy would be one in which cooperation would be developed by a single or few institution, and not by many fragmented forums (Blum, 2008). Given the time and effort that will be considered for the negotiation and implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the considerable resources allocated to the inclusion of the various COPs, the question was raised as to whether the protocol was effective in achieving its objective. Some people think this is not the case (Roses, 2015). Over the past decade, the climate regime has fragmented into many institutions and forums, with overlapping functions and themes (Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen and McGee, 2013). These forums include the G8, the UN Security Council, meetings of major economies, etc., and a host of other bilateral agreements (Eckersley, 2012). We create new ones all the time. This suggests inefficiencies in the protocol itself, with the new fragments being the result of the failure of the climate problem-solving protocol (Raustiala and Victor, 2004). While fragmentation may be said to be not bad in itself, it is a mistake in the design of the protocol, which should be the main institution in the fight against climate change. Given the time, effort and resources invested in ongoing negotiations that have not diminished over time, this is a cost and opportunity for global reduction efforts.

As a result, the protocol did not pass the efficacy test. In addition to the cost of emission reductions, these negative economic effects can be explained by theoretical evidence. Institutional factors such as implementation and implementation procedures or sanctions may affect the impact of the protocol. Some scientists insist that legalization and flexibility in the institutional mechanisms of the IEA improve or worsen their effectiveness [31, 45-47]. Legally binding environmental agreements or agreements should have a positive impact on improving environmental performance.